Saturday, 18 November 2017
Tuesday, 14 November 2017
THE FUNGI KINGDOM
Wild mushrooms are living things that grow on forest floors, tree trunks and even on top of each other. They need moist, cool temperatures and some light. Here it is one mushroom you can find in one of the trees of our school, amazing!! isn't it?
Which living thing can you see?
Which kingdom does it belong to?
Is this living thing unicellular or multicellular?
THE PROTISTA KINGDOM
Protists include two very different types of organisms: algae and protozoa.
Algae are aquatic living things that can be unicellular or multicellular. They can make their own food (autotrophs). Somo multicellular marine algae can grow to a very large size.
Algae are very nutritious, so they are used as food in many countries. They are also used as fertilizer and to produce cosmetics.
Protozoa are unicellular living things that live in aquatic environments. They feed on other organisms. Somo protozoa can cause diseases, like malaria.
THE MONERAN KINGDOM
Monerans are unicellular living things. This kingdom includes bacteria, the most abundant of all living things.
Bacteria are the smallest and simplest living things, and can only be seen through a microscope.
Most bacteria feed on other organisms, but some bacteria make their own food.
Bacteria can be foound everywhere in the world. They can live in all kinds of evnironments: in water, soil, air or inside other living things.
Some bacteria are helpful, like the ones used to make yoghurt, but other are harmful, like the ones that cuase cholera.
Viruses are not included in any of the five kingdoms because they are not considered living things. They cannot perform vital functions (nutrition, interaction, reproduction) on their own. A virus is not a cell. It is a microscopic body that can only reproduce inside living things. Viruses may cause illnesses (influenza gripe, measles sarampión, chicken pox varicela etc.)
Monday, 13 November 2017
SOCIETY IN THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS (1st part)
(pages 12 and 13)
From 7th to 12th centuries, at the beginning of the Middle Ages, the inhabitants of the lands conquered by Christians lived in rural areas. The cities were not yet well-developed.
The system of social organisation in the Christian kingdoms was called feudalism (feudalismo).
They were different social groups: Kings, nobles and clergymen (clero) and peasants (campesinos).
The king needed the nobles to help him defend his kingdom. The king divided his land into fiefs (feudos) and gave them to the nobles or lords and clergymen in exchange for their loyalty.
Nobles or lords, knights and clergymen gave part of their lands to peasants to work. Many of them depended on the lords' protection and had to pay taxes to them.
Soldiers or knights defended the lord's lands from invaders.
In the monasteries the clergy, especially priests (curas) and monks (monjes) were important members of society. Monks copied and translated important books.
Most people were peasants. They worked o the land, growing crops and raising animals. People produced everything they needed, so there wasn't very much trade.
The non-privileged groups spoke a less elegant version of Latin. This was an adaptation to the needs and accents of each region and the origin of the Romance languages, like Galician, Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan. Only one language of the Iberian Peninsula did not have a Latin origin: Basque.
The Christians built many religious buildings, for example San Martín de Frómista Church in Palencia.
EXERCISES. Society in the Christian Kingdoms (1st part).
1. What does feudalism mean? What was a feud?
2. Do you think this model of society was fair for everybody? Why?
3. Castile (Castilla) takes its name from the many castles that exist in its territory. Why do you think there are so many of them?
4. What is a Romance language? How many Romance languages are there? Do you speak any?
1. ___________________ did all the work and were not free.
2. ___________________ received their lands from the king.
3. ___________________ defended the lord's lands from invaders.
4. ___________________ copied and translated important books.
Write Christian Kingdoms or al-Andalus.
a. Monks spent their time translating and copying important books.
b. People were governed by lords who lived in castles. Soldiers defended the lord's lands from invaders.
c. People traded in the souk. They bought and sold things like silk and pottery.
d. The ruler was called the caliph. Sometimes he was represented by an emir.
e. People were divided into three groups: the clergy, nobles and peasants.
Saturday, 11 November 2017
Friday, 10 November 2017
SOCIETY IN AL-ANDALUS
After conquering the Iberian territories, the Muslims were tolerant of the previous inhabitants and respectful of their beliefs. They allowed them to continue practicing their religions and customs. Have a look to the following diagram below and answer the questions.
AN ANDALUSI CITY
- Which buildings were important? What were they used for?
- Can you see any of these types of buildings in your town today? If not, do you know any city where we can find them?
THE MOSQUE OF CORDOBA
(The Alhambra of Granada)
(The Alhambra of Granada)
The Alhambra of Granada. Virtual Tour.
Monday, 6 November 2017
From 716 to 929AD, al-Andalus was an EMIRATE. It was part of the caliphate and its capital was Cordoba. It was governed by an EMIR, who represented the caliph.
In 929AD, an emir called Abderramán III declared that al-Andalus was an independent caliphate. He established the Cordoba Caliphate. This was the beginning of a golden age for al-Andalus. Cordoba became one of the most important cities in the world.
Later on, al-Andalus was divided into small taifa kingdoms, so it was very easy to conquer them.